1 Day

handsonkeyboardOne of the biggest challenges testers face is trying to adequately test enough software conditions when there are very high numbers of possible combinations of conditions that could be performed. Significant research has shown that the most common cause of missed defects in testing is the failure to test pairs of related conditions.

Fortunately, there are techniques and tools available to identify all the paired conditions in software. These are called pairwise testing techniques.

This course is designed for software testers who have a basic knowledge of testing, some experience in testing, and want to go deeper in how to design and conduct efficient tests using pairwise techniques.

You will learn a variety of techniques within the scope of pairwise techniques, including orthogonal arrays, pairwise test design using the pairwise algorithm, and classification trees. You will also learn the tradeoffs and tools in using the various techniques.

This is an interactive workshop that allows you to experience by hands-on application how to actually use these powerful test design techniques on your own projects.

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

  • Get the most test coverage from the least number of test cases
  • Understand the theory behind the pairwise concept
  • Find the best-fit orthogonal array for a given situation
  • Describe effective test tools available for pairwise test case design
  • Design pairwise tests at a business scenario level
  • Use pairwise test design to explain test cases to business users
  • Know when pairwise test design is not the total answer in balancing test scope and resources


Who Will Benefit

  • Test Managers
  • Test Team Leaders
  • Test Engineers
  • Test Designers and Analysts
  • Testers
  • Software Developers


The program requires basic testing knowledge or experience. 


Program Information

This course is presented on an in-house basis only unless offered as a special public course. Contact us for information about how to bring this course into your organization.

Content and Structure


Module PWTA – Introduction (30 mins.)

  • What is Test Case Optimization?
  • Why is Optimization Needed?
  • An Example
  • So, What is a Workable Approach?
  • What’s the Need?
  • The Realm of Pairwise Techniques
  • The Fault Model Behind Pairwise Testing
  • What Research Indicates
  • What Common Sense Indicates

Module PWTB – Orthogonal Arrays (2 hrs.)

  • The Value of Designing Tests With Orthogonal Arrays
  • Terminology
  • Orthogonal Notation
  • Orthogonal Array – Example
  • Facts About Orthogonal Arrays
  • The Good News
  • A Process for Applying Orthogonal Arrays
  • An ExampleExercise – Finding the Best-fit Orthogonal Array
    • Step 1 – Identify Conditions
    • Step 2 – Identify Values in Conditions to be Tested
    • Step 3 – Find a Suitable Array
    • Step 4 – Place the Condition Values into the Array
    • Step 5 – Fill in the Gaps
    • Step 6 – Define the Test Cases
  • Exercise – Apply an Orthogonal Array for Case Study Exercise
  • Sample Orthogonal Arrays
  • Summary

Module PWTC – Pairwise Testing (1 hr.)

  • The Allpairs Algorithm
  • Tools for Pairwise Testing – Allpairs
  • How to Use Allpairs
  • Where to Find Pairwise tools
  • Exercise -  Creating Test Cases Using Allpairs Tool
  • A Word of Warning About Pairwise Testing
  • Summary

Module PWTD – Classification Trees (1 hr.)

  • The Background of Classification Trees
  • How Classification Trees Work
  • An Example of Classification Trees
  • Tools for Classification Trees
  • Exercise – Creating Test Cases Using the CTE XL Tool
  • Summary

Module PWTE – Pairwise Testing at the Scenario Level (1 hr.)

  • How to Identify Usage and Business Scenarios
  • The Role of Models
  • Process Models
  • Use Case Models
  • Prioritizing the Scenarios
  • Examples
  • Orthogonal Arrays at the Scenario Level
  • Pairwise cases at the Scenario Level
  • Classification Trees at the Scenario Level
  • Summary

Module PWTF – Efficient Test Case Organization (30 mins)

  • Test Planning Components
  • How the Pieces Fit Together
  • The Relationship Between Test Cases and Test Scripts
  • Example Test Script
  • Example Test Case
  • Test Script Modularity and Reusability
  • Example
  • Summary

Module PWTG – Summary (10 mins)

  • Review – How Do Orthogonal Arrays and Pairwise Testing Help?
  • Resources for Orthogonal Arrays and Pairwise Testing
  • Final Questions and Answers